Wednesday, 7 December 2011


Scabies is an itchy, contagious skin disease caused by infestation by the itch mite Sarcoptes scabiei. Mites are small eight-legged parasites (in contrast to insects, whichhave six legs).
Scabies is a highly contagious skin condition caused by a mite that is so small that can only be seen with a magnifying glass or a microscope. The mite can not be more than three days to live without a human host, but can survive up to one month in the life of aman. The mite also lays eggs in human skin, which hatch and develop into adult mites.This means that the symptoms of the disorder can last for months or even years.

The rash caused by scabies is very itchy and is also called the "seven years itch. "The results can be subtle, and sometimes scabies is difficult to diagnose. The mite is spread from person to person through close contact. Animals may harbor a similar mite,but if the animal mite is transmitted to humans, it can not reproduce and die within a fewdays.

Scabies affects everyone regardless of age, gender, race, social class, or personal-hygiene habits. It is most common in household members and sexual partners of the individuals involved. Scabies is also common in crowded areas such as nursinghomes and hospitals, where it is widespread. In people with poor immune systems or who are malnourished, scabies can cause a syndrome called "crust scabies" or"Norwegian scabies, the skin thickening and a scaly skin rash.

While you can not cure a case of scabies without prescription medication from a doctor,there are certain things you can do at home to prevent reinfecting yourself or your family.


Wash all clothing, towels, and bed linens in hot water and change frequently. Do not allow air drying. Should you use the dryer.
Use the medication as instructed and Prescribed. Do not use it more than instructed Because You risk your skin or irritation Causing Chemical.
Vacuum your rugs, furniture, and bedding and throw the vacuum cleaner bag away When finished


Sexual transmission: Transmission is more likely to act as partners to spend the night together than with a brief sexual encounter.

Non-sexual transmission: possibly from sleeping in infected bedding, wearing contaminated clothing, even routine contact such as shaking or holding hands. Transfer ofa toilet seat may be possible, but it is unlikely

Direct skin-to-skin contact is the method of shipment. Scabies mites are very sensitive to their environment. They can only live in a host body for 24-36 hours in most circumstances. Transmission of the mites involves close person-to-person contact of the skin to peel. It is difficult, if not impossible, to catch scabies by shaking hands, hanging your coat next to someone who has, or even sharing bed clothes that had mites in them the night before. Sexual physical contact, but can transmit the disease. Indeed, sexual contact is the most common form of transmission among sexually active young people,scabies and was widely regarded as a sexually transmitted disease (STD) are. However,other forms of physical contact, such as mothers hugging their children, are sufficient to spread the mites. Over time, good friends and family members contract it this way too.School settings often do not provide the level of long-term personal contact is necessary for the transmission of the mites


Symptoms include severe and persistent itching, especially at night. An indication that you may have scabies, as other members of your household experienced the same symptoms
The skin may show signs of small insect-type bites, or lesions may look like pimples.The skin can be red, or ulcers due to scratching of the area. Scabs or open sores are susceptible to infection with bacteria. A hollow (short S-shaped track that indicates the movement of the mite under the skin) may also be evident. The average person has onlytaken five to ten mites on their bodies at a time. Caves are small enough to be overlooked. So scabies should also be considered when there is severe itching withouta rash clear, biting, or hollow.

Scabies is often found in the crevices of the body such as between fingers and toes, the buttocks, elbows, waist, genital area, and under the breasts in women.
In crust (Norwegian) scabies, the body is covered with a thick, dry, scaly and rash. The rash of scabies scabs may or may not itch, but it contains thousands to millions of mites.Crusted scabies is the most contagious form of scabies and difficult to treat.

Scabies on hands

Scabies  on hand

Monday, 5 December 2011


Osteoarthritis is a form of arthritis that affects the breakdown and eventual loss of cartilage of one or more joints functions. Cartilage is a protein substance that serves as a "cushion" between the bones of the joints.

Osteoarthritis (OA) is one of the most common forms of arthritis and affects nearly 27 million Americans and 151 million individuals worldwide.

Known as the "wear-and-tear" kind of arthritis, osteoarthritis is a chronic disease characterized by the breakdown of joint cartilage's. 

Cartilage is the part of the joint thatcushions the ends of the bones and allows easy movement. The breakdown of cartilagecauses the bones to rub against each other, causing stiffness, pain and loss of motion inthe joint.

A combination of factors may contribute to OA, such as obesity, aging, joint injury or stress, heredity, and muscle weakness. OA can affect the hands, feet, spine, or largeweight-bearing joints such as hips and knees.

Worldwide, OA impacts about 18% of women and 9.6% of men 60 years and older
In the U.S. alone, OA affects 13.9% of adults aged 25 and older and 33.6% (12.4 million) of those 65 years and older.
From 1990 to 2005, the number of American adults are affected by OA increased from 21,000,000 to 26,900,000.

Osteoarthritis (OA), also known as degenerative arthritis or degenerative joint diseaseis a group of mechanical defects on the degradation of joints.  Including cartilage and subchondral boneSymptoms may include joint paintenderness, stiffnesslocking, and sometimes an effusionA variety of factors-genetic, developmental, metabolic and mechanical may initiate processes that lead to loss of cartilageWhen bone surfaces are less well protected by cartilagebone can be exposed and damagedAs a result of decreased mobility secondary to painregional muscles may atrophyand ligaments are more lax.

Obesity causes osteoarthritis by increasing the mechanical load on articular cartilage and so on. In factin addition to agingobesity is the major risk factor for osteoarthritis of the kneesThe early development of osteoarthritis of the knees among weight lifters is believed to be partly due to their high body weightRepeated trauma to joint tissues (ligaments,bones and cartilage) is believed to lead to early osteoarthritis of the knees in soccer players and the Army military personnel. Interestingly, studies have not found an increased risk of osteoarthritis in the long distance runners.

Arthritis treatment depends on the diet  but often  includes medication and exercise. There is no special diet for  osteoarthritis, but weight loss can improve symptoms of osteoarthritis.


Osteoarthritis commonly affects the hands, feet, spineand large weight-bearing joints such as hips and kneesOsteoarthritis usually has no known cause and is referred to as primary osteoarthritis. When the cause of the osteoarthritis is known, the condition is called as secondary osteoarthritis.

The most common joints affected by osteoarthritis are the big toe joint, wrists, hips, knees,cervical and lumbar spine


FingersBone enlargements in the fingertips (first joint) are common. These are called Heberden nodesThey are usually not painfulSometimes they can develop suddenly and are painfulswollen and red. This knot is known as osteoarthritis and occurs in women older than 45 years.

HipThe hips are major weight-bearing jointsInvolvement of the hips may be seen more in menFarmers, construction workersfirefighters and found that an increased incidence of hip osteoarthritisResearchers believe that a physical strain contributes to osteoarthritis of the hip and knee.

KneesThe knees are major weight-bearing jointsRepetitive squatting and kneeling may promote osteoarthritis.

SpineOsteoarthritis of the spine can lead to bone spurs or osteophyteswhich can pinchor crowd nerves and cause pain and possibly weakness in the arms or legs.


Lifestyle changes can help cure joint pain for some patients. For example, exercise can strengthen the muscles around a joint, making it more stable. Weight loss can relieve painby pressure on joints.

Treatment includes medications that are not accompanied by education, physical and occupational therapy, weight loss, exercise and aids (orthoses).